Pledge to Schmalkalden League
Christopher Mont sent to Germany to pledge Henry’s alliance to the Schmalkalden League. He was also to warn them about being tricked into a pact with Charles at the forthcoming diet in Frankfurt.
Francis & Charles Conclude Pact at Toledo
Toledo, Spain. Francis and Charles conclude a pact in which each promised not to enter into any agreement
without the other’s consent.
Reginald Pole against Henry
Reginald Pole sent out from Rome to rally Catholic powers against 'the most cruel and abominable tyrant',
the King of England.
Henry Pole Executed
9 January 1539
Henry Pole, 1st Baron Montagu, executed.
Pole arrived in Toledo to Meet Charles
John III, the Peaceful Duke of Cleves Died
6 February 1539
He is succeeded by Duke William of Jülich-Cleves-Berge.
Sir Nicholas Carew Executed
8 March 1539
Former royal favourite, once a close friend of the king but a critic of Thomas Cromwell, Sir Nicholas was executed. Carew was tried and convicted on 14 February 1539 and beheaded on Tower Hill.
Embassy to Cleves
10 March 1539.
Henry drafts instructions for embassy to be sent to Cleves.
Fear of Attack
Acute fear of multiple attack from Scotland, the Low Countries, France and Spain. Henry builds new coastal defences and reviews mustered troops at St James's.
First Authorised Bible in English
The Great Bible was the first authorised edition of the Bible in English to be read aloud in English church services. It was prepared by Myles Coverdale, on the commission of Thomas Cromwell, Secretary to Henry VIII and Vicar General. The clergy was instructed to provide ‘one book of the bible of the largest volume in English, and the same set up in some convenient place within the said church that ye have care of, whereas your parishioners may most commodiously resort to the same and read it’.
Signs with Charles
19 April 1539
Represented by Philip Melanchthon, the Schmalkaldic League agreed a treaty with Charles for fifteen months, starting 1 May 1539. During this time, both parties would try and resolve the differences in their confessions. As a result of this peace, the Schmalkaldic League lost the protection of France.
Cromwell Ill at Crucial Time
19 April 1539
Cromwell writes to Henry and says that he is very ill and unable to attend 'your highness'. He remains confined to his house until 10 May.
Germans Close Theological Discussions
23 April 1539
German ambassadors, led by two laymen, arrive in London with a letter dismissing further theological discussion. The conservatives would be able to use this against the evangelists as a rejection of Henry’s interest in theological discussions.
Act for the Dissolution of the Greater Monasteries
19 May 1539
Statute passed by parliament granting the king’s right to all monasteries not included in the 1536 legislation, that is to say, all of the rest of the monasteries in England and Wales.
Henry in Parliament
19 and 21 May 1539
Henry himself attends parliament to lend weight to the movement towards a conservative settlement.
Statute of Six Articles