Sweating Sickness Epidemic
Usually lasting for four or five hours and never more than twenty four by which time the victim was recovering fully or dead.
Luther Uses the Press
Luther's Ninety Five Theses are translated from Latin into German and thousands of copies are distributed around Europe in more languages
Pope Preaches for Crusade
Pope Leo X (Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici) meanwhile, felt the need of staying the advance of the Ottoman sultan, Selim I, who was threatening western Europe, and made elaborate plans for a crusade. A truce was to be proclaimed throughout Christendom; the pope was to be the arbiter of disputes; the emperor and the king of France were to lead the army; England, Spain and Portugal were to furnish the fleet; and the combined forces were to be directed against Constantinople. Papal diplomacy in the interests of peace failed, however; Cardinal Wolsey made England, not the pope, the arbiter between France and the Empire; and much of the money collected for the crusade from tithes and indulgences was spent in other ways.
But Wolsey Plans to Commandeer Papal Initiative
29 March 1518
Despatch from Sebastian he Venetian ambassador to England to the Doge (Duke of Venice).
An English herald, who had been sent to France, arrived with a French herald, a few days since, and has confirmed the news, and announced the birth of the Dauphin. Did not see him, but has heard his errand from Wolsey and Ruthal. Visited the Spanish ambassador, who spoke of the forces of the Catholic King and of the desire of all parties for a general peace. Waited on Wolsey, and was summoned into his presence with the Spanish ambassador. He spoke of the Cardinal Legates appointed by the four Sovereigns, and the necessity of mutual confidence. It was impossible, he urged, to arrange a crusade unless the King of France would give up his ambitious designs, and cease to harbor Albany and Richard de la Pole. The Spaniard said that necessity would cause this union. Wolsey replied, there was not time for preparation, and, turning to Sebastian, observed: "You are in a perilous position, but more from the Christian than the true Turk." Seeing the Cardinal very warm, Sebastian pretended not to understand the allusion.
When the audience was over, they attended him to hear a sermon. Thinks it was a mere excuse of Wolsey, to conceal their indisposition to act against the Turk, and avoid the reproach they would otherwise incur. Wolsey assured him that the Emperor was trying to obtain money from the Christian powers, and wanted all that was destined for this expedition to pass through his hands; so throwing contempt upon it. England is not on good terms with the Emperor. After the sermon and the departure of the Spanish ambassador, Wolsey spoke to him in a different tone, and no longer abused the French King, but said he hoped that their disputes would be arranged, and he would do all to promote the union, whatever he himself might suffer from it. "'If I perceive the King of France to mean well towards his majesty, and administer justice to our subjects, I will at any rate conclude this union;' adding, moreover, 'The King of France has now got a son, and his majesty here has a daughter: I will unite them by these means.'" Sebastian praised his determination. London, 29 March 1518.
L&P 4047 (1518)
Cardinal Wolsey Appointed Papal Legate in England
17 May 1518
Pope Leo x (Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici) sends legates to convince European princes to make peace.Cardinal Campeggio sent to England but was only allowed to enter the country when Wolsey was promoted to equal standing Campeggio arrives 29 July 1518
17 May 1518.
Vit. B. III. 219. B. M. Rym. XIII. 606. 4170. LEO X. to WOLSEY.
For the purpose of confirming the five years' peace among Christian princes, and uniting them in an expedition against the Turks, has sent Laurence [Campegio] Cardinal S. Thomas in Parione to England. Considering Wolsey's influence with the King, creates him legate along with him. Rome, 16 kal. Jun. 1518.
Papal Commission to Treat
20 Aug 1518
From Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici, Pope LeoX to Legates Wolsey and Campeggio.
Commissions them to treat with Maximilian King of the Romans, and the Kings of England, France and Spain, for a league defensive and offensive for five years against the tyrant of the Turks, who has slain the Sultan, subdued Egypt, Syria and Africa, and is preparing an armament for the invasion, as it appears, of Christendom. Rome, 1518, 13 kal. Sept., 6 pont.
4 October 1518
English & French sign treaty and restore Tournai to France. Francis agrees to pay a pension to Henry and keep Duke of Albany out of Scotland.
5 October 1518
Two year old Mary was pledged to marry the Dauphin of France in a ceremony at Greenwich.
Others Join France and Treat with England for a Universal Peace
Following the Anglo-French Treaty other rulers make the agreement
1. Peace is declared between the confederated Kings.
2. Mutual aid in case of invasion is guaranteed by land,
3. And by sea.
4. Power of passing through the confederates' territory guaranteed.
5. No confederate to allow his subjects to serve any one confederate against any other.
6. No confederate to afford protection to the vassal of any other without consent of that other.
7. No confederate to do or allow to be done anything to the injury of any other, or of his heirs or successors or of his or their possession.
8. No confederate to receive any rebels against another.
Catherine’s Last Pregnancy
9 November 1518
Catherine age thirty two ends her last pregnancy - delivers still born daughter.
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